Chief executive Jes Staley said 2017 had largely been a "year of considerable strategic progress" but admitted work was still needed on gender pay.
Barclays has posted a 10% rise in annual pre-tax profits to £3.54bn, up from £3.23bn in 2016.
Barclays' attributable loss compares with a £1.6 billion profit over the course of 2016.
Laith Khalaf, senior analyst at Hargreaves Lansdown, commented: "Arnold Schwarzenegger and Donald Trump don't always see eye to eye, but they have double-teamed Barclays, with the bank's full year profits dragged down by U.S. tax reform and a PPI campaign fronted by everyone's favourite bodybuilder".
According to the BBC, the collapse of Carillion has cost Barclays around £127m.
The results come after Mr Staley recently completed a group-wide restructure, having overseen a mammoth programme to offload non-core businesses in a bid to focus on core United Kingdom and USA operations.
He added: "We have a portfolio of profitable businesses, producing significant earnings, and have plans and investments in place to grow those earnings over time".
Mr Staley said market volatility since the start of 2018 had boosted its investment bank, with income "tracking above" the previous year.
Shares in Barclays rose 4% as the bank announced a 3p-a-share dividend and announced it would more than double the payout next year, with aims to pay 6.5 pence a share.
While he earned 2.35 million pounds in fixed base pay a year ago, Staley's bonus of 1.07 million pounds was down from 1.32 million in 2016 and less than half of the maximum available.
The lender earlier posted a pretax profit, excluding litigation costs, of 334 million pounds, missing the average 570-million-pound average estimate of 14 analysts compiled by the bank.
The Financial Conduct Authority and the Prudential Regulation Authority are investigating the American's conduct relating to the incident in 2016.
Revenues were £21.1bn and bonuses awarded to staff were flat at £1.5bn.