However, Mr Keating built momentum for a second challenge as Mr Hawke struggled against federal Liberal leader John Hewson, even though he was proposing a hated 15 per cent Goods and Services Tax.
However, he said it would be "churlish" of him to mention the vote that took place this morning.
It is the latest chapter in a turbulent period for Australian politics.
Mr Dutton has been in charge of Australia's immigration policy that has resulted in hundreds of New Zealanders living in Australia being deported back has been a source of tension between the two countries home.
"I believe I had the best prospect of leading the Liberal Party to success at the next election", Dutton told reporters of his decision to challenge Turnbull for the leadership.
He had reaped his revenge, three years after becoming the first Australian prime minister since Federation to have been brought down in his first term.
Turnbull, trying to regain the initiative as speculation swirled over his future, began a meeting of Liberal parliamentarians on Tuesday by declaring the leadership of the party, and therefore the government, open to be contested.
The prime minister declared the leadership vacant after entering the party room with his deputy Julie Bishop shortly after 9am on Tuesday morning.
Dutton then set out what he thought the government needed to do in order to stay in office.
The former Home Affairs minister has resigned to sit on the backbench, but has not ruled out another challenge.
If Senator Cormann switched his support to Mr Dutton, a number of WA MPs would be expected to follow his lead.
Liberal Party Senator James McGrath has also quit.
Sky News is reporting that after Mr Turnbull called the spill, Mr Dutton put his hand up to challenge.
"It is always orderly in our party room", Marino said.
He also took a crack at Opposition Leader Bill Shorten, repeatedly saying that a Labor government would simply be the worst goddamn thing to befall this nation.
Treasurer Scott Morrison insisted the leadership was "not an issue" and said Mr Dutton had told him in Question Time that his position had not changed and he was "fully supporting" Mr Turnbull.
Mr Turnbull has been forced to change his energy policy - formulated and agreed to just last week - to head off the threat of his own colleagues voting against the policy in Parliament.
But former Prime Minister Tony Abbott, who was replaced by Mr. Turnbull in a ballot of government lawmakers in 2015, was not convinced that Mr. Turnbull had given up on reducing Australia's greenhouse gas emissions by 26 % below 2005 levels through legislation.
The ruling coalition's battle plan, which it repeated as it tried to close ranks after the leadership vote, is to focus on stopping Shorten from becoming prime minister. Australians are due to hold a general election early next year.