The ministry issued four documents listing the goods from the U.S. that could face the new tariffs, with a range of food ingredients and finished foods featured, taking in sectors such as bakery, fruit and infant food, as well meat and confectionery.
The fear, now, is that the Trump administration will impose duties in a third round of tariffs covering all remaining products not already covered previously - which would undoubtedly include apparel and textiles made in China - the largest supplier of these products to the United States. Still, in response to Trump's tariffs, China retaliated with a 25 percent tariff on soybeans.
China instead is threatening roughly two-fifths of its US purchases after Trump threatened two-fifths of China's much larger exports to the USA, said Tu Xinquan, executive dean of the China Institute for World Trade Organization Studies at the University of International Business and Economics in Beijing.
China urges the United States to relax its controls over exports to China, and protect and promote the high-tech trade and cooperation between companies from both countries, the ministry said.
Hopes had been rising that Trump might drop his trade-war campaign after the president announced a deal last week with European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker that would see the USA and EU cut tariffs and other barriers.
China is willing to resolve differences with the United States "on the basis of an equal footing and mutual respect", China's top diplomat said after meeting US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.
There is no evidence, however, that the Chinese government is financing such an advertising campaign in the US.
However, a flurry of articles from the Chinese state media stressed the resilience of China's economy, essentially downplaying concerns regarding the impact of the US-China trade war.
The announcement came after the Office of the United States Trade Representative announced earlier this week that it was considering increasing the proposed additional duty on $200 billion of Chinese products from 10 percent to 25 percent.
Despite the escalating trade row, the economy's resilience has been remarkable, said Tu Xinquan, director of the China Institute for WTO Studies at the University of International Business and Economics.
While Mr Trump has taken credit for new steel jobs created with the help of tariffs, retaliatory measures by Beijing and others have rattled USA soya bean farmers and the many companies reliant on increasingly expensive steel as a raw material.
If China carries through on its latest threat, it will be imposing some form of tariffs on almost all of the $130 billion in goods it imports from the U.S.
"They switched gear a bit because, I think, they realized that they have the weaker hand here in terms of their ability to retaliate, partly because they import far less from the US than the USA imports from China, but also [because] a portion of [goods] they import from China is, you know, high-tech that are quite hard to import from elsewhere", Julian Evans-Pritchard, senior China economist at Capital Economics told VOA. USA business and farm groups, which do extensive business with China, have complained for months about Mr Trump's strategy, but there are no signs that the Chinese government is paying for a campaign in the US.
"Tariffs are working far better than anyone ever anticipated" and would make the United States "much richer than it is today", the president tweeted.
Lu Xiang, an expert on U.S. Kudlow cited state subsidies and forced technology transfers as behaviours that the Trump administration wants China to end.
As many as 5,207 USA products, including meat, coffee, nuts, alcoholic drinks, minerals, chemicals, leather products, wood products, machinery, furniture and auto parts were listed by China to be targeted for the "safeguard its own legitimate interests".
The People's Bank of China has announced new requirements for certain types of trading in the yuan, measures that are aimed at stabilizing the currency. The U.S. can buy more because the economy is strong. "China trade dispute. They expect solid economic growth momentum amid policy fine-tuning", it said.