Trump's tirade came just one day after French President Emmanuel Macron - once regarded as a close confidant of the U.S. president - rebuked Trump's "America First" brand of nationalism, comparing it to the forces that plunged Europe into conflict in the early 20th Century.
"By saying our interests come first and others don't matter we are erasing what makes a nation precious, what makes it live, what makes it great and most importantly of all, its moral values", Mr Macron said.
"Between allies, we must respect each other, I do not want to hear about the rest", he added.
The French president also clarified comments he made last week about building a European army separate from North Atlantic Treaty Organisation - an idea Trump called "very insulting" - by saying that "being an ally" of the U.S. "doesn't mean being a vassal state".
"The United States are our historic ally and will continue to be", Mr Macron said.
The leader of France tried to avoid a direct answer to a series of tweets Donald trump, in which he put Makron "to look at" some of the statements of the latter regarding, in particular, of a European army.
Speaking to reporters during a visit to a French warship after Mr Trump's comments, Mr Macron said what matters is "what we do with the United States army".
Historically, this was a position that Britain had held since the Second World War, with the close military and intelligence-sharing relationship between Washington and London forming the bedrock of American dealings with Europeans.
On Tuesday, Mr Trump attacked Mr Macron over nationalism, plans for a European army and the French leader's ratings.
"The problem is that Emmanuel suffers from a very low Approval Rating in France, 26%, and an unemployment rate of nearly 10%", Trump wrote, attempting to explain Macron's remarks. They were starting to learn German in Paris before the US came along. He was just trying to get onto another subject.
The fight became more intense after Macron publicly denounced "nationalism" during a speech Sunday. "But being an ally doesn't mean being a vassal state", Macron said.
"Every day our soldiers fight together, risk their lives together - that's the most important decision you take when you are president", Macron said. In a radio interview last week, Macron called for the establishment of an European Union that can defend the continent "without relying only on the United States".
That seemed an opportunity too good to miss for Mr Macron who, ever since his election, has styled himself as an enthusiastic advocate of a reform agenda for the EU.
Earlier Wednesday, government spokesman Benjamin Griveaux suggested that the US president lacked "common decency" by launching his broadside on a day when France was mourning victims of the November 2015 attacks in Paris.